In this chapter, we will study about heat and temperature. The chapter begins with an introduction to the thermal properties of matter. We then read about how to measure different temperatures. We read about absolute temperature and the ideal-gas equation.
The chapter then talks about thermal expansion and its examples. We also study specific heat capacity before moving on to explain calorimetry. We read about the change of state of different substances and heat transfer. The chapter finally concludes with an explanation to Newton's law of cooling.
- Temperature is the indicator of hotness or coolness.
- Heat termed as the transfer of energy between two substances by virtue of differences in temperature.
- We learn about thermometers and the different units of measuring temperature.
- We read about the concept of absolute temperature or absolute zero in this chapter too.
- The ideal-gas equation has also been explained with the help of examples and numerical.
- The increase in dimensions of a body due to an increase in temperature is called thermal expansion.
- The expansion in length, area, and volume is called the linear, area, and volume expansion, respectively.
- We also learn about the coefficients of these expansions.
- The change in temperature of a substance when the heat is absorbed or rejected by it is characterized by a quantity called heat capacity.
- A device that measures heat is called a calorimeter.
- We then read about the change of state of different substances according to the changing heat levels.
- The chapter also talks about heat transfers between two or more objects according to temperature differences.
- Heat transfer is explained through numerous equations and concepts like conduction, radiation, etc.
- The chapter then concludes by teaching us about Newton's law of cooling and its equations and derivations.