# NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 - Thermodynamics The important and difficult topic of thermodynamics is discussed here. The chapter begins with an introduction to thermal equilibrium before moving on to the Zeroth law of thermodynamics. We will read about the first law of thermodynamics in great detail. We will also read about specific heat capacities.

The chapter also tells us about the thermodynamic state variables and equation of state. We will further read about the thermodynamic process and heat engines and their application. The chapter then talks about the second law of thermodynamics and its equations and formulae. The chapter then talks about reversible and irreversible processes before concluding with an explanation on the Carnot engine.

• The chapter begins by giving us the historical journey of heat and temperature in science.
• The state of a system is said to be in equilibrium if the macroscopic variables do not change in time. This is called thermal equilibrium.
• The Zeroth law of thermodynamic states that when two systems are in thermal equilibrium, there must be a physical quantity with the same value.
• The chapter contains various examples to show the zeroth law in practicality and about heat and temperature and how zeroth law influences our understanding of temperature.
• We also read about the concept of internal energy of a system.
• The chapter then equates the first law of thermodynamics, which is similar to the law of conservation of energy plus taking the energy transfer in the surroundings into account.
• The chapter then talks about specific heat capacity and the specific heat capacity of water.
• Specific values of macroscopic variables are also called state variables.
• We then learn about thermodynamic processes like the quasi-static, isothermal, adiabatic, isochoric and cyclic processes.
• Then we read about heat engines which convert heat into work.
• We take the example of refrigerators and heat pumps to explain this process.
• We then read about the second law of thermodynamics which provides limitations to the concept given by the first law.
• We also learn about reversible and irreversible thermodynamic processes and the Carnot engine, and it's functioning.

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