In this chapter, students learn Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, the law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium- ionisation of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionisation, ionisation of polybasic acids, acid strength, the concept of pH, hydrolysis of salts, buffer solution, Henderson Equation, solubility product and common ion effect.
This topic helps students understand the equilibrium between different physical properties with no change in chemical composition. The various examples of equilibrium are Solid-Liquid equilibrium, Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium and Solid-Vapour Equilibrium.
The process in which the forward and reverse reactions of a chemical equation occur at an equal rate with no net change in the product and reactant ratio is Equilibrium in Chemical Process or Dynamic Equilibrium.
In this topic, students shall address several important questions about the composition of equilibrium mixtures like what is the relationship between the concentrations of reactants and products in an equilibrium mixture. The topic answers questions like "how can we determine equilibrium concentrations from initial concentrations?" and "What factors can be exploited to alter the composition of an equilibrium mixture?" The topic also discusses homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria.
Students learn the applications of the equilibrium constant to: • predict the extent of a reaction based on its magnitude, • predict the direction of the reaction, and • calculate equilibrium concentrations. This topic includes the calculation of equilibrium concentrations.
This topic explains the various factors affecting equilibria and the factors that influence equilibria.
The ionic equilibrium is the equilibrium established between the unionised molecules and the ions in a solution for weak electrolytes. Acids, bases and salts come under the category of electrolytes and may act as either strong or weak electrolytes.
This topic recalls the concepts of acids, bases and salts and introduces three theories based on acids and bases. They are Arrhenius Concept of Acids and Bases, The Brönsted-Lowry Acids and Bases and Lewis Acids and Bases.
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