This chapter demonstrates atoms' concept in-depth and discusses the discovery of Subatomic particles such as electrons, protons and neutrons, atomic number, isotopes, and isobar. It also introduces students to Thomson's model along with its limitations, Rutherford's model, and Bohr's model with their limitations, concept of shells and subshells, followed by the dual nature of matter and light.
The chapter further explores de Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shapes of s, p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, the stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
Students learn the experiments that led to the discovery of these subatomic particles.
This topic helps students identify the atomic numbers of each particle.
This topic provides the foundation to the meaning of isotopes and isobars and their uses in calculations of atomic number, electrons, protons and neutrons.
It provides an illustration of the shape of an atom, according to J.J. Thomson.
This topic explains Rutherford's gold foil experiments, its observations, and results.
This topic helps students understand the concept of electrons traveling in defined circular orbits around the nucleus.
It states that it is impossible to calculate the exact position and exact momentum (or velocity) of an electron at a given point of time simultaneously.
In this topic, students understand the differentiated sizes, shape and orientation of orbitals and how the principle of quantum number is used to determine it.
This topic explains the filling up of orbitals with electrons. The principle states: In the atoms' ground state, the orbitals are filled in order of their increasing energies.
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