This chapter introduces p-Block Elements Group 13 Elements and their electronic configuration, occurrence, a variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of the first element of the group, Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds: Borax, Boric acid, Boron Hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalis, uses.
It also teaches Group 14 Elements and their electronic configuration, occurrence, variation Of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements, Carbon- catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some important compounds: oxides, Important compounds of Silicon and a few uses: Silicon Tetrachloride, Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
This group has elements which show a wide variation in properties. Boron is a typical non-metal, aluminium is metal but shows many chemical similarities to boron, and gallium, indium, and thallium are almost exclusively metallic in character. Students learn the electronic configuration, Ionisation enthalpy, and Electronegativity, Physical and Chemical properties of these elements.
Few important properties can be observed in the chemical behaviour of group 13 elements. one such property being the tri-chlorides, bromides and iodides of all these elements being covalent in nature are hydrolysed in water.
Some useful compounds of boron include borax, orthoboric acid and diborane. This topic provides a brief study of these elements.
Carbon, silicon, germanium, tin, lead and flerovium belong to the carbon family commonly known as group 14. Students learn the electronic configuration, covalent radius, ionisation enthalpy, electronegativity, and the common physical and chemical properties of these elements.
Carbon also has a unique property known as catenation. It is the ability to form pπ– pπ multiple bonds with itself and with other atoms of small size and high electronegativity.
Carbon exhibits many allotropic forms. It is present in both crystalline as well as amorphous forms. Students will learn about these forms of carbon, such as diamond, graphite, and fullerenes in this topic.
This topic covers the oxides of carbon, which are carbon monoxide, CO and carbon dioxide, CO2. It also explains Silicones, Silicates and Zeolites.
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