This chapter provides an introduction to Group I and Group 2 Elements and their electronic configuration, occurrence anomalous progenies of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties, trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydrogen carbonate, Biological importance of Sodium and Potassium, Calcium Oxide and Calcium Carbonate and their industrial uses and biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
The alkali metals show regular trends in their physical and chemical properties with the increasing atomic number. This topic discusses the electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, hydration enthalpy, physical and chemical properties of alkali metals and their uses.
All the common compounds of the alkali metals are generally ionic in nature. General characteristics of some of their compounds are discussed here.
The anomalous behaviour of lithium is due to the: (i) exceptionally small size of its atom and ion, and (ii) high polarising power (i.e., charge/ radius ratio). This section also points out the difference between lithium and alkaline metals and the similarities between lithium and magnesium.
Industrially important compounds of sodium include sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate. In this topic, the large scale production and the uses of these elements are discussed.
The group 2 elements comprise beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium. This topic discusses the electronic configuration, atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, hydration enthalpy, physical and chemical properties of alkali earth metals and their uses. It also discusses in-depth, the Anomalous properties of Beryllium and important compounds of calcium.
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