This chapter deals with Hydrocarbons' classification, including the Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Structure of Benzene and their properties and formation and Carcinogenicity and toxicity.
Alkanes are saturated open-chain hydrocarbons containing carbon-carbon single bonds. In this topic, students learn the nomenclature and isomerism in alkanes with various examples, steps for preparation of alkanes, and their physical and chemical properties. Students will further learn the substitution reactions and its mechanism, combustion, isomerisation, aromatisation, and various projections for conformation such as Sawhorse projections and Newman projections.
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, and they contain at least one double bond. In this section, students obtain a deep knowledge on the structure of the double bond, nomenclature of alkenes in IUPAC system, structural and geometrical isomerism, and steps for preparation of alkenes, their physical and chemical properties and its mechanism.
Like alkenes, alkynes are also unsaturated hydrocarbons, which contain at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms. In this topic, students learn in-depth the Nomenclature and Isomerism of alkynes, structure of the triple bond, steps for preparation of alkynes, physical and chemical properties, and reaction to the addition of other elements or compounds.
These hydrocarbons are also known as 'arenes'. Most of them possess pleasant odour, and such compounds were often found to contain a benzene ring. Students are recalled of the nomenclature and isomerism of aromatic hydrocarbons which has already been discussed in unit 12. This topic further deals with benzene, resonance and stability of benzene, benzene aromaticity, steps for the preparation of benzene, physical and chemical properties, and reactions.
Benzene and polynuclear hydrocarbons containing more than two benzene rings fused together are toxic and said to possess cancer-producing (carcinogenic) property.
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