This chapter explains the system and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, and state functions. It also deals with First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation combustion, formation, atomisation, sublimation, phase transition, ionisation, solution and dilution, Second law of Thermodynamics.
The chapter further covers the introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibb's energy change for Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium and a brief introduction to the Third law of thermodynamics.
This topic explains the thermodynamics system, which refers to that part of the universe in which observations are made, and the remaining universe constitutes the surroundings. It also lists out the types of System.
This topic teaches students to calculate energy changes as work and heat contributions in chemical systems.
Students learn to measure energy changes associated with chemical or physical processes by an experimental technique in this section.
In this topic, students learn the conversion of reactants in a chemical reaction into products. The enthalpy change accompanying a reaction is called the reaction enthalpy.
This topic discusses the various enthalpies specifying the types of reactions which include, Standard Enthalpy of Combustion, Enthalpy of Atomization, Bond Enthalpy, and Lattice Enthalpy, Enthalpy of Solution and Enthalpy of Dilution and their calculations.
Having the potential to move in either a forward or a backward direction (in case of reactions) without an external agency's assistance is called Spontaneity.
This topic deals with understanding the relationship between free energy and the equilibrium constant.
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