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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science, Political Science Chapter 5 - Popular Struggles and Movements

In this chapter, students will learn how leaders in the power balance the conflicting demands and pressures that exist in Democracy.

In a democracy, Power-sharing is very important between the different tiers of government. Democracy includes conflict of interests and diverse viewpoints. The chapter covers the different ways these differences in interests and viewpoints are expressed. The chapter also discusses that those in power are required to balance these conflicting demands and pressures. It is these struggles around conflicting demands and pressures that shape Democracy.

The chapter discusses popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia that were made successful with the help of organizations like the Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and FEDECOR, respectively. Nepal mobilised a movement to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved a claim for an elected, democratic government. 2Although both of these struggles were successful, their impact was felt differently by the different levels of society.

The chapter discusses the several indirect ways in which people can present their demands and points of view to governments. The public presents their opinion by forming organizations and conducting activities that promote their self-interests or their personal viewpoints. These organized groups are called interest groups or pressure groups.

Pressure groups exert influence on most government policies and laws. However, they do not aim to control or share political power directly. Movements, too, attempt to influence politics rather than directly take part in the electoral competition; for example, Narmada Bachao Andolan, Movement for Right to Information, etc.

On the other hand, the Interest groups seek to promote the interests of a particular section, for example, Trade Unions, Business Associations, etc. Their chief concern is the well-being of their members and not society in general.

Narmada Bachao Andolan is a good example of a single-issue movement. It can be contrasted with movements like environmental movement and women's long-term movement and involve more than one issue. Pressure groups and Interest groups exert influence on politics in various ways by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, filing petitions, etc.


Also See,
History – India and Contemporary World II
Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Chapter 2: Nationalism in India Chapter 3: The Making of a Global World
Chapter 4: The Age of Industrialisation Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World
Geography – Contemporary India II
Chapter 1: Resources and Development Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources Chapter 3: Water Resources
Chapter 4: Agriculture Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy  
Political Science – Democratic Politics II
Chapter 1: Power-sharing Chapter 2: Federalism Chapter 3: Democracy and Diversity
Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements Chapter 6: Political Parties
Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy
Economics – Understanding Economic Development
Chapter 1: Development Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy Chapter 3: Money and Credit
Chapter 4: Globalisation and the Indian Economy Chapter 5: Consumer Rights

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