In this chapter, students will learn about one of the most important resources, water. Water is one of the most precious resources for human life, and it covers 3/4 of the Earth's surface. Water as a resource is not just used for drinking and daily life purpose; it is also used as a source of electricity. However, increased population, growing urbanization, intensive industrialization, and water pollution are important are causing water scarcity throughout India and other parts of the world.
Several multipurpose river projects have been initiated to combat the issue of water scarcity. Multipurpose river projects like dams are constructed to fulfill a variety of purposes like generation of hydroelectricity, irrigation, and flood control, fish breeding, soil conservation, and recreation. For example, the Bhakra-Nangal project on the Sutlej-Beas river basin is used for hydel power production as well as irrigation. However, these river projects have adverse effects, including reducing soil fertility, displacement of people and aquatic life, territorial water dispute sedimentation, etc. Also, river water sharing is a major cause of dispute among the states.
There have been protests against the construction of dams, for example, the Narmada Bachao Andolan and 'Tehri Dam Andolan'. Moreover, there have been instances when dams have failed in controlling floods, for example, in Maharashtra and Gujrat in 2006.
However, there are other water conservation methods, such as rainwater harvesting, that do not have adverse effects on the environment or human life. Rainwater harvesting is a good alternative method to connect the rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifers under the ground. Rainwater harvesting is essential for a highly populous country like India. Various traditional water harvesting systems are practised in India, including khadins in Jaisalmer, Johads in the rest of Rajasthan, and guls or kuls of the Western Himalayas. There are other underground water storage systems, such as tankas, which collect clean rainwater for future use.
History – India and Contemporary World II
|Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe||Chapter 2: Nationalism in India||Chapter 3: The Making of a Global World|
|Chapter 4: The Age of Industrialisation||Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World|
Geography – Contemporary India II
|Chapter 1: Resources and Development||Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources||Chapter 3: Water Resources|
|Chapter 4: Agriculture||Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources||Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries|
|Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy|
Political Science – Democratic Politics II
|Chapter 1: Power-sharing||Chapter 2: Federalism||Chapter 3: Democracy and Diversity|
|Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste||Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements||Chapter 6: Political Parties|
|Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy||Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy|
Economics – Understanding Economic Development
|Chapter 1: Development||Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy||Chapter 3: Money and Credit|
|Chapter 4: Globalisation and the Indian Economy||Chapter 5: Consumer Rights|
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