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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science Chapter 2 - Federalism

In this chapter, students will learn the theory and practice of federalism in India. Towards the end of the chapter, you will know about the local government, a new and third tier of Indian federalism.

Federalism is the political system under which power is divided between a country's central authority and constituent units. Different tiers of government of the countries rule over the same citizens, but each tier has its jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, administration, etc. For example, Sri Lanka continues to follow a unitary system. In contrast, India is a federal country that can be understood because its Constitution states that India is a Union of States.

The Indian Constitution provides for two tiers of government – the Union government (also called Central government) and State governments. The Constitution has also provided for a three-fold distribution of legislative powers – Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. The judiciary has a very important role to play in the implementation of constitutional provisions. In case of any dispute over the division of powers, the High Courts and Supreme Court take a decision.

Federalism encourages the citizens to respect diversity and live together as a unit in one country. In 1947, the boundaries of several Indian states were changed so that people sharing a common language can live together. The formation of linguistic states has contributed to efforts of making the country more united and helped in administration.

Decentralisation is another feature of India's federal structure. It is the third tier of government. In this system, the power is decentralised to the village and town level. This is done so because local issues can best be understood and handled at the local level.

Lastly, the chapter discusses the 1992 Act, which brought in effective Decentralisation. The Act mandated regular elections for local governments. Therefore, elections are regularly held for village panchayats and municipalities in urban areas.


Also See,
History – India and Contemporary World II
Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Chapter 2: Nationalism in India Chapter 3: The Making of a Global World
Chapter 4: The Age of Industrialisation Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World
Geography – Contemporary India II
Chapter 1: Resources and Development Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources Chapter 3: Water Resources
Chapter 4: Agriculture Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries
Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy  
Political Science – Democratic Politics II
Chapter 1: Power-sharing Chapter 2: Federalism Chapter 3: Democracy and Diversity
Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements Chapter 6: Political Parties
Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy
Economics – Understanding Economic Development
Chapter 1: Development Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy Chapter 3: Money and Credit
Chapter 4: Globalisation and the Indian Economy Chapter 5: Consumer Rights

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