In this chapter, students will learn the theory and practice of federalism in India. Towards the end of the chapter, you will know about the local government, a new and third tier of Indian federalism.
Federalism is the political system under which power is divided between a country's central authority and constituent units. Different tiers of government of the countries rule over the same citizens, but each tier has its jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, administration, etc. For example, Sri Lanka continues to follow a unitary system. In contrast, India is a federal country that can be understood because its Constitution states that India is a Union of States.
The Indian Constitution provides for two tiers of government – the Union government (also called Central government) and State governments. The Constitution has also provided for a three-fold distribution of legislative powers – Union List, State List, and Concurrent List. The judiciary has a very important role to play in the implementation of constitutional provisions. In case of any dispute over the division of powers, the High Courts and Supreme Court take a decision.
Federalism encourages the citizens to respect diversity and live together as a unit in one country. In 1947, the boundaries of several Indian states were changed so that people sharing a common language can live together. The formation of linguistic states has contributed to efforts of making the country more united and helped in administration.
Decentralisation is another feature of India's federal structure. It is the third tier of government. In this system, the power is decentralised to the village and town level. This is done so because local issues can best be understood and handled at the local level.
Lastly, the chapter discusses the 1992 Act, which brought in effective Decentralisation. The Act mandated regular elections for local governments. Therefore, elections are regularly held for village panchayats and municipalities in urban areas.
History – India and Contemporary World II
|Chapter 1: The Rise of Nationalism in Europe||Chapter 2: Nationalism in India||Chapter 3: The Making of a Global World|
|Chapter 4: The Age of Industrialisation||Chapter 5: Print Culture and the Modern World|
Geography – Contemporary India II
|Chapter 1: Resources and Development||Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources||Chapter 3: Water Resources|
|Chapter 4: Agriculture||Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources||Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries|
|Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy|
Political Science – Democratic Politics II
|Chapter 1: Power-sharing||Chapter 2: Federalism||Chapter 3: Democracy and Diversity|
|Chapter 4: Gender, Religion and Caste||Chapter 5: Popular Struggles and Movements||Chapter 6: Political Parties|
|Chapter 7: Outcomes of Democracy||Chapter 8: Challenges to Democracy|
Economics – Understanding Economic Development
|Chapter 1: Development||Chapter 2: Sectors of the Indian Economy||Chapter 3: Money and Credit|
|Chapter 4: Globalisation and the Indian Economy||Chapter 5: Consumer Rights|
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