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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

The second chapter talks about the concepts of “Conservatives,” “liberals,” and “radicals”. The liberals and radicals owned factories that provided jobs for many men and women. The period of Europe was complicated, with Socialists and Philosophers such as Karl Marx’s views contradicting. The other section of the chapter focuses on the social and political conditions that led to the Russian revolution. The social revolutionaries gained a majority and demanded a constitution. The chapter continues with the First World War and then the formation of the Russian constitution. To oppose government policies, Lenin soon started planning for revolt with the help of the Army.

Further, there was a bar between Bolsheviks and Non-Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks began Centralized planning that led to development. The chapter ends with Stalin’s Collectivization and the developments after it.

  • The chapter begins, with the introduction of European rulers and the formation of different sections in the society.
  • Pictures have been used to depict the situation of poor people in the mid-19th century.
  • Karl Marx’s vision of Communist society brought a revolutionary change in the way workers were treated.
  • The October revolution of 1917 led the Socialists to dominate the Russian Government.
  • The chapter further states the ill-effects of World War I on Russia, where there was a shortage of raw material, workers, and industrial equipment to start working.
  • Soon, unable to bear the famine, workers began revolting against the government which was later joined by Women.
  • During the Civil war, the Bolsheviks started centralized planning where five years plan was made in advance
  • The chapter ends by describing the Industrial development, which led to schools' formation, cheap public health was provided.
  • In the end, Stalin’s collectivization led to collective farming, and the famine came to an end.


Also See Social Science History- Chapter-Wise
Chapter 1 The French Revolution Chapter 3 Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Chapter 4 Forest Society and Colonialism
Chapter 5 Pastoralists in the Modern World
Geography- Chapter-Wise
Chapter 1 India Size and Location Chapter 2 Physical Features of India Chapter 3 Drainage
Chapter 4 Climate Chapter 5 Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Chapter 6 Population
Political Science (Civics) - Chapter-Wise
Chapter 1 What is Democracy? Why is Democracy? Chapter 2 Constitutional Design Chapter 3 Electoral Politics
Chapter 4 Working of Institutions Chapter 5 Democratic Rights
Social Science Economics - Chapter-Wise
Chapter 1 The Story of Village Palampur Chapter 2 People as a Resource Chapter 3 Poverty as a Challenge
Chapter 4 Food Security in India

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