The transition from Class 11 to class 12 is also the transition from classical physics to electrical, magnetic and modern physics concepts. This can be daunting to many, and Aakash endeavours to make this step up as easy as possible. This is a crucial period for students to lay the foundation for their upcoming entrance exams. Moreover, most of the topics included in the HC Verma class 12 curriculum focus on preparing the students for their future. It is designed so that it gently introduces students to essential topics without depriving their interest in learning. The pupils must understand each topic in order for them to receive the highest possible grade.
At Aakash, we have provided HC Verma solution for class 12 to help students understand every concept more transparently. Physics is an entirely concept-based subject which makes it hard to score maximum marks. The primary goal is to assist pupils with their academics. The answers have been designed with the learners' recent change in mind. Therefore, explanations are constructed at an easy-to-understand language level, making it easier for them to intake more information.
The HC Verma solution for class 12 is prepared by experts and senior faculty with years of experience. Each solution is given a step-by-step description and clarification of each topic and sub-topic, which will help the students clear most of their doubts. It also contains follow-through and in-depth analysis of each question which helps the students understand the core concept of the question and prepares them to approach a single question in 2-3 different ways. After a thorough analysis of the current syllabus, the solutions are designed to coordinate with the student's intellect.
In the Aakash HC Verma solution for class 12, we have considered every chapter and provided solutions for every question. The HC Verma solution for class 12 consists of a total of 25 chapters. The answer provides students with a thorough understanding of the idea and prepares them for tests. To ease students, Aakash provides free PDF Solutions for HC Verma physics for class 12, which is of ideal help. After going through the reading material in the book, we propose that students download the PDF file and use it to practise the questions. This will ensure an in-depth understanding of the subject.
This chapter discusses Hot and Cold Bodies, the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, the Defining Scale of Temperature, Mercury and the Resistance Thermometers. This chapter also deals with the precise knowledge of Gas Thermometer with Constant Volume. It gives you detailed information on the Temperature Scale for Ideal Gases, Celsius Temperature Scale for Ideal Gases, and Ideal Gas Equation for Ideal Gases with easy to understand theories and mathematically perfect derivations. The chapter concludes by defining thermal expansion and its naturally occurring application.
The 24th chapter covers the topics related to the Kinetic Theory of Gases. The chapter starts with the assumptions of the Kinetic theory of Gases (about 6 assumptions), followed by calculating the Pressure of an Ideal Gas, RMS Speed, and the Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature. Then the chapter covers the deductions from Kinetic Theory and laws by various famous scientists. A total of 6 different laws are discussed, including Boyle's Law, Charles Law, Charles Pressure Law, Avogadro's Law, Graham's Law of Diffusion, and Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure. The Ideal Gas Equation is derived, and Maxwell's Speed Distribution Law is covered in this chapter. Lastly, various properties of the gases like Brownian Motion, Vapour, Evaporation, Saturated and Unsaturated Vapour Boiling, Dew Point, Humidity, Determination of Relative Humidity, Vapour Pressure Diagrams of Phases: Dew, Fog, and Triple Point are further explained.
In chapter 25, the students learn about Heat as a type of Energy and the different units of Heat like Joule (SI unit) and calories. The chapter helps the students dive into the Calorimetry Principle, Specific Heat Capacity, and Molar Heat Capacity. They learn topics like Specific Heat Capacity, Specific Latent Heat of Fusion, and Vaporization in the laboratory in this chapter. In addition, this chapter includes subject matters like Mechanical Equivalent of Heat, Measurement of Specific Latent Heat of Ice Fusion, and Measurement of Specific Latent Heat of Water Vaporization.
Chapter 26th of HC Verma incorporates Thermodynamics which deals with studying different kinds of relations between Heat and other energy configurations. The chapter defines the First Law of Thermodynamics with a comprehensive demonstration and finally reveals the first law equation. It also makes the student aware of the work done by a gas normally and under various Isobaric and Isochoric processes. The chapter demonstrates the working of the Heat Engines with a flow chart and well-labelled diagram. Further, The Second Law of Thermodynamics and The Third Law of Thermodynamics Entropy are defined in this chapter. Additionally, the Carnot Engine and Reversible and Irreversible Processes are all covered in this key chapter.
This chapter begins with the Two Types of Specific Heat Capacities of Gases and leads to the relationship between Cp and Cv for ideal gases. Then, the chapter manifests diagrams and mathematical derivations to determine Cp of a Gas and Cv of a Gas with neat and clean experimental diagrams. It also explains the Isothermal and Adiabatic processes, work done in an Adiabatic Process, and the mathematical relationships between p, V, and T in a Reversible Adiabatic Process. Finally, the chapter ends on the concept of energy distribution in Equipartition, an important physics concept for class 12 and this chapter.
Chapter 28 kicks off with the concept of Thermal Conduction with an illustrative diagram and brief details about thermal conduction and thermal resistance with formulas. Then, the Series and Parallel Connection of Rods and the Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of a Solid is explained with to-the-point information. Next, different heat transfer processes like Convection, Radiation, Prevost Theory of Exchange, Blackbody Radiation, Kirchhoff's Law, Nature of Thermal Radiation, Stefan–Boltzmann Law are covered thoroughly with respective diagrams and derivations. Finally, the chapter finishes on the famous Newton's Law of Cooling and Detection and Measurement of Radiation written in a straightforward and easy-to-understand method.
This chapter defines an Electric Charge, the unit of charge, types of charges, and the properties of the charged particles in the beginning. The Coulomb's Law related to the Force of an electric charge is demonstrated with the Electric Field and Lines of Electric Force. Electric Potential Energy, Electric Potential, Electric Potential owing to a Point Charge, Electric Field and Potential Relationship, and Electric Dipole are explained. There are more topics covered in this chapter. Materials like Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors are explained in detail. Different types of properties and experiments like The Electric Field Inside a Conductor, Torque on an Electric Dipole Placed in an Electric Field, Potential Energy of a Dipole Placed in a Uniform Electric Field are covered later in this chapter with proper diagrams and derivations.
This chapter mainly deals with the concept of the flux of an Electric Field across a Surface. It also explains Solid Angle and then provides us with the knowledge of Gauss's Law and how it is derived from Coulomb's Law learned in the previous chapter. The applications of Gauss's Law like electric field calculation in a charged conductor, uniformly charged sphere and linear charge distribution, Spherical Charge distribution, the importance of Conductor Earthing, and other concepts are discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 31 defines the Capacitor and the concept of Capacitance. It helps the students to calculate Capacitance and the different Combinations of Capacitors and their properties. Students also learn the Force between the Plates of a Capacitor, Energy Stored in a Capacitor, and Energy Density in an Electric Field. The chapter also unveils an Alternative Form of Gauss's Law and teaches about Dielectrics and Parallel-plate Capacitor with a Dielectric. Finally, the chapter submerges the Electric Field calculation due to a Point Charge q placed in an Infinite Dielectric and the Energy in the Electric Field in a Dielectric. Corona Discharge and High-voltage Generator are some of the other topics covered in this chapter later.
The Students learn about Electric Current and Current Density in this chapter. First, the Drift Speed of an electron is thoroughly explained, followed by the well-known Ohm's Law for calculating the resistance of any conductor. Also, the colour codes of the resistor and resistivity of different materials are tabularised under this topic. The Temperature Dependence of Resistivity is also mentioned and described in the chapter. Next, the readers are made aware of the Battery and emf. Then, the transfer of Energy in an electric circuit is explained, followed by Kirchhoff's Laws and Combination of resistors in Series and Parallel and Battery Grouping. Lastly, the chapter includes a detailed explanation of Wheatstone Bridge, Ammeter and Voltmeter, Stretched-wire Potentiometer, Capacitor Charging, Discharging, and Atmospheric Electricity.
This chapter covers Joule's Laws of Heating and Joule's Laws Verification. Various important effects like Seebeck Effect, Peltier Effect, Thomson Effect, Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects are described in a simple language. The process Electrolysis of good conducting liquid and the salient Faraday's Laws of Electrolysis is explained. Further, working and construction of Voltameter or Coulombmeter, Primary and Secondary Cells, Primary Cells, Secondary Cell: Lead Accumulator are demonstrated with comprehensible diagrams.
Chapter 34 marks the beginning of another important topic of Physics, i.e., Magnetism. The concepts of Magnetic Field with Definition, its units, and different properties are covered in this chapter. The chapter also includes the relationship between Electric and Magnetic fields. The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Magnetic Field is exemplified, and the Magnetic Force on a Current-carrying Wire is calculated and explained in an uncomplicated way. The chapter concludes by explaining the Torque on a Current Loop.
This intriguing chapter of HC Verma class 12 teaches students about the prominent Biot–Savart Law and applying this law in physics. The Magnetic Field due to Current in a Straight Wire is derived, the right-hand thumb rule for determining the current direction is shown, and the Force between Parallel Currents is calculated in this lesson. Furthermore, the chapter incorporates the magnetic field due to a Circular Current and the famed Ampere's Law. Lastly, the Magnetic Field at a Point due to a Long, Straight Current, Toroid, Solenoid are taught by this chapter.
Chapter 36 contains detailed information on Magnetic Poles and Bar Magnets. The properties like Torque on a Bar Magnet Placed in a Magnetic Field are obtained, and the Magnetic Field due to a Bar Magnet is demonstrated with neat and clear diagrams. The chapter also covers Magnetic Scalar Potential and Terrestrial Magnetism, i.e., the magnetic field produced by the earth's rotations. The elements of the earth's Magnetism are described in detail. The Determination of Dip at a Place is explained with possible errors. Other topics like Neutral Point, Tangent Galvanometer, Moving-coil Galvanometer, and Shunt have easily been added to understand the language. The Tangent Law of Perpendicular Fields, Deflection Magnetometer, and Oscillation Magnetometer are some of the ideas covered in this chapter.
Chapter 37 deals with the magnetic properties and provides enough information on all the topics incorporated in this chapter. First, the lesson explains how the Magnetisation of Materials can be determined and begins with the Intensity of Magnetisation. After that, the magnetic moment is clarified, and different magnetic materials like Paramagnetism, Ferromagnetism, and Diamagnetism are explained eventually. Next, properties like Magnetic Intensity, Magnetic Susceptibility, and Permeability are mentioned in depth. Finally the Curie's Law, Dia-, Para-, and Ferromagnetic Substances, Hysteresis, Soft Iron, and Steel are among the topics discussed in this chapter.
The riveting chapter 38 explains the famous Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction, the induced electromotive force's direction, and simplifies Lenz's Law. The chapter also incorporates The Origin of Induced emf, production of Eddy Current, and defines the concept of Self-induction with diagrams and mathematical equations. The Growth and Decay of Current in an LR Circuit and Energy Stored in an Inductor are demonstrated with examples. The chapter also provides a diagrammatic derivation of Mutual Induction. Eventually, the induction coil, which produces large emf from a small input, is provided to study and learn in this chapter.
Chapter 39 of HC Verma teaches us about the Alternating Current. It helps students learn about the AC Generator or AC Dynamo, its construction, its working principle, and its applications. Instantaneous and RMS Current are explained next in this chapter. Then, the Simple AC Circuits are demonstrated. Finding the Current in an AC Circuit Using a Vector Method is explained in an uncomplicated way. Precise information on AC Circuits, AC Circuits with Power, Choke Coil, and Hot-wire Instruments ends the AC part of this chapter. The lesson then begins with the direct current concept and its applications like DC Dynamo, DC Motor, and Transformer with proper diagrams and well-written language.
Chapter 40 is the chapter that will talk about electromagnetic waves in HC Verma. It begins with the explanation of Maxwell's Displacement Current and Electric Current Continuity. Ultimately Maxwell's Equations for EM waves are derived and described in detail. Plane Electromagnetic Waves, Energy Density and Intensity, and Momentum are included in the chapter to better understand EM waves. Electromagnetic Spectrum containing different types of EM waves like Cosmic rays, X-rays, Gamma rays, etc., are arranged in order, and the Radiation in the Atmosphere are all covered in this chapter.
This chapter covers the topics of low-pressure discharge, which includes Sparking Potential, also known as Paschen's Law, Low-Pressure Phenomena, and an explanation of discharge phenomena. Further, the chapter talks about the definition and properties of cathode rays, canal rays, and positive rays. The chapter also provides relevant information about the discovery and the properties of electrons. Finally, thermionic Emission (Thermionic Emission), a term used to describe Triode Valve, Diode Valve, Amplifier Triode, concludes the chapter.
This compact chapter explains the Photon Theory of Light, defines what photons are, and gives detailed data on the properties of photons. Next, the Photoelectric Effect comes to light which explains the removal of electrons from the surface of a metal when photon or light strikes its surface. The Einstein's Photoelectric equation is mentioned along with the equation for Threshold wavelength. A deep experimental arrangement of this effect is described with a clean diagram and detailed graphs of the result. Photoelectric Effect and Wave Theory of Light are compared, and the chapter ends with explaining the Matter Waves to the students.
This chapter covers the history of the Early Atomic Models like the Thompson model, Lenards Suggestion, and the Rutherford Model. It also talks about the difficulties with Rutherford's Model and how Bohr's Model overcame those limitations. The chapter also discusses Bohr's Model Limitations. Definition of the Hydrogen Spectra and The Electron's Wave Function is also elaborated. The Hydrogen Atom's Quantum Mechanics, Laser Nomenclature in Atomic Physics are explained in this chapter.
This chapter clarifies the ideas of X-rays and how X-ray production takes place. It also explains to the students about the continuous and characteristic X-rays. Furthermore, the chapter tells us about soft and hard X-rays and more. Lastly, important laws like Moseley's Law, Bragg's Law are discussed in the textbook with the X-ray Properties and their applications in daily life.
Chapter 45 institutes the introduction followed by the concept of Energy Bands in Solids. Then, the chapter dives deep into the definition of Semiconductors and their types. The p-type and n-type Semiconductors are explained to the point. Further, the Charge Carriers Density is simplified and served to the students in a comprehensive tone. Semiconductor devices like Conductivity Junction Transistors, Logic Gates, p-n Junction, and p-n Junction Diode are discussed thoroughly. The chapter delivers the method of their creation, properties, working, diagrams, daily life applications. Also, p-n Junction as a Rectifier is one of the topics of this fascinating chapter.
This chapter clarifies questions about the Nucleus of an atom and the Properties associated with it. First, the chapter explains what are the Nuclear Forces and their characteristics point-wise. Further, the Binding Energy of the nucleus is defined with the help of simple language and a graph. Next, the students are made aware of the concept of Radioactive Decay and its types (Alpha decay, Beta decay, and Gamma decay) along with the Law of Radioactive Decay. Then, the chapter gets interesting with the Properties and Uses of Nuclear Radiation( Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays), Energy from the Nucleus and Nuclear Fission. The most attractive topic, Uranium Fission Reactor, is defined thoroughly, including a neat and well-labelled diagram of a Nuclear reactor and important notes on Breeders Reactor. The chapter concludes by explaining Nuclear Fusion and Laboratory Fusion.
Everything you want to know about the special theory of relativity is explained in this chapter. First, it discusses The Principle of Relativity and challenges the Maxwell laws learned in the previous chapters and questions: Are Maxwell's Laws Frame-Independent? After a thorough explanation of this question, the Consequences of Kinematics are discussed with numerous examples and conditions. Next, the most famous relation in the world, the relation between Energy and Momentum (Einstein's Equation), is clarified, followed by the Dynamics at High Velocity and speeds closer to the speed of light. Lastly, the Paradox of the Twins is covered in the final chapter of physics by HC Verma.
The solutions are set down by professionals and experienced individuals with expertise in Physics. The solutions are written in an easy-to-understand method with a language understandable by the general audience.
The PDF comes free of cost and thus can be afforded by all aspiring students. Moreover, it is readily available at the official website of Aakash. Therefore, it ensures that the students who do not have the means to get high-end guidance are not deprived of quality study material.
The pdf has a detailed solution to every question with proper derivations and diagrams in the required problems. The book clears the concept of basic and advanced physics questions and provides easy ways to solve them. The book is beneficial in improving the speed of problem-solving for competitive exams.