This chapter includes a brief account of energy, its types, and generating electricity using different forms of energy. Energy can be classified into two main categories:
After reading the chapter, we get to know what a good energy source is, the characteristics of good fuel, and the concept of calorific value. The traditional energy sources, such as LPG, dung cakes, etc., are also known as conventional energy sources. The concept of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum, petroleum gas; how they were formed; advantages, disadvantages, and precautions while using are of due importance. Natural gas is being utilized as a fuel for several purposes, and it offers several advantages. This chapter includes various types of power plants and how electricity is produced in detail. For example, burning fossil fuels generates heat in a thermal power plant that drives turbines.
However, fossil fuels can also cause pollution. Hence several ways to control pollution caused by fossil fuels are included in this chapter. Due to rapid industrialization, limited reserves of fossil fuels are left with us. Thus, the world needs to find viable alternative energy sources; they can be called non-conventional sources of energy. For example, a Hydro-Power plant produces electricity using flowing water and wind generators use windmills or wind turbines. In addition, solar energy is exploited for human use in some devices like solar cookers and solar cells. The biomass energy is obtained from wood, charcoal, agricultural wastes, etc. Students will learn how fuel is generated in rural areas using cow dung in a Biogas plant. Energy can be obtained from the sea mainly in three forms:
Geothermal energy, nuclear energy (nuclear fission and nuclear fusion), nuclear power plants, nuclear bomb, Einstein's mass-energy relation, energy units for expressing nuclear energy, the value of an atomic mass unit in terms of energy and hydrogen bomb are certain topics which are further included in this chapter. Finally, environmental consequences of using different forms of energy and how long the earth's energy resources will last are the concluding topics of this chapter.