A magnet is an object which attracts (ferromagnetic) metals like iron, steel, nickel, etc., and has a magnetic field around it in which magnetic field lines originating from its north pole can be observed. The path of these lines can be plotted by using iron filings over a bar magnet or by using a compass. Students will learn about the properties of these magnetic field lines and the magnetic field of the earth. Electromagnetism is the magnetic conceived by the effect of an electric current, which means electricity produces magnetism. The chapter includes certain experiments to demonstrate the magnetic effect of current. Different magnetic fields are produced by current-carrying conductors having different shapes. Hence we study:
Electromagnets work on the principle of the magnetic effect of current and number of turns, the current flowing, and the length of air gap between its poles are certain factors that affect an electromagnet's strength. Magnetism in the Human body is a topic that connects biology with physics. The heart and brain are two organs of the human body where a magnetic field is produced. When a current-carrying conductor is subjected to a magnetic field, it experiences a force. Here we learn to demonstrate the force acting on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field via a kicking wire experiment. Fleming's left-hand rule and clock face rule are also studied. In addition, students will get an insight into certain household appliances such as the electric motor. The principle of a motor, its working, and construction are the areas under focus. Next, certain experiments demonstrate electromagnetic induction using a straight wire and a horse-shoe type magnet or a coil and a bar magnet. Fleming's left-hand rule can be used for determining the direction of induced current. Further, the current is of two types, i.e. direct and alternating current. Generators are of two types:
Their working and construction are studied in brief. The chapter concludes with the topics like domestic electric circuits, Earthing of electrical appliances, electric fuse, electricity risks, and cautions while using electricity.