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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

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Aakash NCERT Solutions for Chapter 4 of Class 12 Biology talk about reproductive health in detail. The solutions also teach students about topics such as Problems and Strategies, Population Explosion and Birth Control, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Infertility which are all related to reproductive health.

Q1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in society?
Answer: Reproductive health refers to complete physical, emotional, behavioral, and social well-being and all aspects of reproduction. The significance of reproductive health is as follows:
1. Attainment of reproductive health can possibly reduce the chances of STDs such as AIDS, hepatitis, gonorrhea, etc. as a reproductively healthy society has knowledge about transmission of these diseases, thus these can be prevented.
2. In a reproductively healthy society, people will have knowledge about birth control and family planning, thus aiding in population control.

Q2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Answer: The aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario are as follows:
1. Spreading of proper information about reproductive organs, STDs, AIDS, etc.
2. Educating people about different kinds of birth control options, taking care of pregnant ladies, postnatal care for child and mother as well.

Q3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Answer: Yes, sex education is necessary to be introduced in schools. It is because the school students are adolescents and they must be taught regarding reproductive health. This is considered to be the right time for giving them information about reproductive organs, puberty, safe sexual practices, and changes related to adolescence. They also are made aware of STDs and birth control measures. Therefore, providing sex education to them in schools will lead to a reproductively healthy society.

Q4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Answer: Yes, reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years as India has taken some serious steps to improve reproductive health in the country.
1. Programs such as family planning started in 1951.
2. Government together with certain NGOs is creating awareness about reproductive health through audio-visual aids and print media.
3. Maternal and infant mortality rate has decreased drastically in India.
4. To stop female foeticides, amniocentesis has been banned in India.
5. Massive immunization programs for infants and children have been set up.

Q5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Answer: Reasons for population explosions are as follows-
1. A rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality.
2. Increase in individuals of reproductive age.
3. Due to better medical facilities, the lifespan of people is increasing.
4. Illiteracy causes people to be unaware of birth control measures leading to unwanted pregnancies.

Q6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Answer: Yes, the use of contraceptives is justified these days. It is mainly because the population of India is continuously increasing. Uncontrolled growth in population is one of the major problems of the world. The growing population will make the scarcity of basic needs such as food, shelter, etc. Thus, in order to control the growth in population, the use of contraceptives becomes necessary. Various methods of contraceptive methods are available today which are very easy, safe, cost-effective, and without any side effects. Therefore, fertile couples can use contraceptive methods to control the population.

Q7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Answer: A contraceptive is a method by which the chances of unwanted pregnancies can be reduced. Removal of gonads is not considered a contraceptive because it causes infertility along with the unavailability of hormones required for the functioning of accessory reproductive organs.

Q8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Answer: Amniocentesis is a process that was used to find any kind of abnormalities in the fetus. However. this technique was misused to find the sex of the child. Some parents used to abort their female child before being born. Thus in order to reduce female foeticides, the ban on amniocentesis is necessary.

Q9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Answer: Infertility refers to the inability of a couple to produce their young one even after continuous unprotected sex. The factors that cause infertility can be physical, diseases, drugs, immunological, etc. There are infertility clinics that provide correct treatment to infertile couples. Some methods to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows:
1. Various assisted reproductive technologies i.e. ART methods are practiced these days. Among these, IVF (In-vitro fertilization) is very common which is followed by ET (embryo transfer). This process is also known as a test-tube baby program.
2. GIFT – Gamete intrafallopian transfer, in this process embryos from in-vivo fertilization are transferred to a female recipient which is able to carry the baby for 9 months.
3. AI – Artificial insemination, is used when the sperm count of the male partner is very low. In this process, the sperms are artificially introduced into the vagina or uterus of a recipient female.
4. ICSI – Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a method of directly injecting sperm into the ovum to form the embryo.

Q10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent contracting STDs?
Answer: The measures one has to take to prevent contracting STDs are as follows:
1. Always use condoms while having intercourse.
2. We must avoid having sex with an unknown partner or multiple partners.
3. We should maintain sex hygiene and must consult a physician if any symptoms are found.

Q11. State True/False with explanation
(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
Answer: - True, abortion which is medical termination of pregnancy can happen spontaneously too.
(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
Answer: - False. A male partner could also be responsible for infertility.
(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
Answer: - True. During complete lactation, no ovulation takes place so no menstrual cycle and no chances of fertilization.
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve the reproductive health of people. (True/False)
Answer: - True. Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve the reproductive health of people.

Q12. Correct the following statements :
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
Answer: Surgical methods of contraception do not prevent gamete formation. They act as a contraceptive by not allowing the transfer of gametes, thus preventing unwanted pregnancies.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
Answer: Some sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable if detected earlier. Aids is a sexually transmitted disease that is still incurable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
Answer: Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among urban women.
(d) In ET techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
Answer: In the ET technique, an embryo of 8 cell stage or lesser is transferred to the fallopian tube while that of more than 8 blastomere stage is transferred to the uterus.

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