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NCERT Solutions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 9: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

In this chapter, we start by looking at iron tools that developed during historic times. These tools were used to make agriculture more efficient. We will study the new irrigation methods that were developed. The chapter further tells us about three kinds of people living in villages in the south, the north and the rest of the country. Students would also get to know about the different stories and sculptors that tell us of those times. The chapter also talks about coins and their usage over time. Finally, we would read about Mathura, one of the very few famous cities for many reasons, and end with a brief description of the crafts of those times. The important points to keep in mind from the chapter are:

  • Around 2,500 years ago, the use of iron tools in agriculture increased.
  • The increase in production also led to new irrigation methods like tanks, wells, canals etc.
  • In southern India, landlords were called Vellalar, ordinary ploughmen were known as Uzhavar, and labourers were known as Adimai.
  • In northern India, the village headman was known as the Grama Bhojaka. This post was hereditary.
  • Independent farmers were known as Grihapatis, who were small landowners.
  • Stories, similar to the works of Jatakas, sculptors, buildings, pottery, and accounts of travellers help us understand those times.
  • The earliest coins found from this period are punch-marked coins.
  • Mathura was located in the middle of two trade routes and thus, was a very important city for 2,500 ears. Two thousand years ago, it also became the capital of the Kushanas.
  • Mathura was also a religious centre for Buddhists, Jains and devotees of Krishna.
  • Evidence has also been found of crafts from this period. Manufacturing of cloth was also famous in places like Varanasi and Mathura.


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