A significant population, including in India, is facing infertility. In easy words, infertility is an inability to have children despite unprotected cohabitation. The cause of infertility can be due to various reasons, including physical, congenital, diseases, drugs, immunological, or even psychological factors. Talking about India, the female is frequently blamed for the couple’s infertility, but in most cases, the problem lies in the male partner.
Infertility is a disorder that occurs in the reproductive system of males or females. In simple words, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – PDFs Updated for 2021-22 Exam | AESL can be defined as the inability to successful pregnancy even after 2 years of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.
Assisted Reproductive Technology: Advanced Age Solutions for Infertility
The government and private sectors have set up various specialised health care clinics to aid in the early diagnosis and treatment of some of these disorders. Undergoing treatments can allow these couples to have children. When such treatments are not possible, the couples can use special techniques known as Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to conceive a baby Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions
|Did You Know?
Infertility Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions | AESL has affected millions of people in their reproductive years around the world. According to estimates, around 48 million married couples and 186 million individuals have infertility worldwide. As per the Indian Society of Assisted Reproduction, infertility has affected approximately 10 to 14 percent of Indian married couples. Infertility is particularly higher in urban areas, where one out of every six couples is affected on a random basis. In India, almost 27.5 million couples suffer from infertility.
Causes of Infertility
India has witnessed an upward sloping graph in infertility in the last 5 years. There has been around a 20-30 percent increase in infertility among couples in India. Infertility is not limited to areas. It can be in both urban and rural areas. Furthermore, a major misconception seen for centuries that females are the reason for failure in conceiving is wrong! It’s not only limited to women. The chances of infertility are equally possible in men. Regrettably, in Indian society, women are always accused of their inability to bear children.
Consequently, it’s important to educate the population about infertility, its major causes, and how infertility can be resolved using advanced techniques such as Assisted Reproductive Technology. The cause of infertility in men and women can be due to various factors, including genetic, disease, drug, immunological, or psychological factors. Any of the factors above can cause infertility.
|Did You Know?
Infertility Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions in the male reproductive system are generally linked to problems with sperm ejection, lower rates or absence of sperm, morphological characteristics, and mobility of the sperm.
While various deformities can drive infertility in the female reproductive system in the reproductive organs such as the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, endocrine system, and others, NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – PDFs Updated for 2021-22 Exam.
Assisted Reproductive Technology: What is it?
Assisted Reproductive Technology refers to a variety of procedures used to treat infertility. The technology aids in obtaining a pregnancy through multiple methodologies such as In Vitro Fertilisation (the most commonly used method), Surrogacy, and various fertility prescription drugs.
ART Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions can be classified under the following headings: Endocrinology and Cryopreservation, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), reproductive technology, and infertility treatments.
There are multiple methods of ART to treat infertility complications in couples. These are as follows:
- In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
- Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
- Donor Eggs
In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
The most frequently used methods of ART techniques to cure infertility. A large percentage of couples prefer IVF NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – PDFs Updated for 2021-22 Exam to other ART techniques. The method works by combining a woman’s egg and a man’s sperm in a laboratory under fully examined situations. The embryo is then transferred within the woman’s uterus immediately after fertilization.
This method begins by monitoring the woman’s ovulation cycle and activating it to separate an egg (female gamete) from her ovaries. The female gamete and sperm are kept in a liquid for fertilization. Later on, the zygote is formed due to the completion of egg fertilization.
The zygote undergoes embryo culture for 2-6 days. Ultimately, this embryo culture is transferred into the woman’s uterus to form a successful pregnancy.
It is the process by which another woman carries a child for a couple experiencing infertility. The couple’s egg and sperm or the donor’s egg and sperm can complete the fertilization process.
Infertility Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions can be classified into two categories primary and secondary. Primary infertility is when a female partner has never had a pregnancy, whereas secondary infertility occurs when a female partner has had at least one previous pregnancy.
Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Before these advanced technologies, infertile couples used Gamete Intra-Fallopian Transfer (GIFT) NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – PDFs Updated for 2021-22 Exam. The method works by combining an egg and sperm from the couple using specialized laboratory techniques.
These eggs are then embedded in the female’s fallopian tube. The fertilization of a zygote takes place inside a woman’s body rather than in a laboratory. This method is ideal for couples who prefer a much more natural alternative than other ART techniques. In this process, complete fertilization and implantation occur within the woman’s body.
Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT)
The Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer (ZIFT) NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology – PDFs Updated for 2021-22 Exam is a procedure similar to IVF and embryo transfer. The main difference between ZIFT and IVF methods is that in ZIFT, the embryo is transferred to the female’s fallopian tube directly after the fertilization process. In contrast, the embryo is transferred to the female’s uterus in IVF. Because in ZIFT, the embryo is transferred directly into the fallopian tube after 24 hours, this method is also known as TET (tubal embryo transfer).
IntraCytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a technique that aids in the forming of an embryo in men by injecting sperm directly into the egg/ovum. This technique makes it possible to inject a single sperm cell directly into the cytoplasm of the ova (egg). The technique helps in successfully preparing zygotes and the formation of embryos, which are immediately transmitted into the woman’s uterus.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
Intrauterine Insemination Learn Biology Concepts – Topics and Definitions is one of the ART techniques which transfers men’s sperm into a women’s uterus using a long, narrow tube. Furthermore, this method can be used parallel with the ovulation stimulation process. When the processes work together, This method can help in increasing the chances of fertility by working both the processes parallel to each other.
The technique’s success rate is entirely dependent on the cause of infertility. If the process is performed with frozen or fresh sperms, the success rate can be increased by nearly 20%. However, the increase in success rate is highly determined by the woman’s age, fertility medications, the reason for infertility, and various other cognitive factors.
This method is preferred in cases where the woman’s eggs cannot be seen, or there is a deformity in the egg formation process. Therefore, the process uses the donor’s eggs/ova, fertilized with the man’s sperm. The embryo stays gestating until it is transferred to the woman’s uterus. The same procedure is applicable in the case of sperm donation.
As studied earlier in this article, numerous techniques are available for conceiving a child, but all these techniques necessitate extreme handling precisions. These techniques can be only performed by specialized medical professionals and expensive laboratory equipment, making them outrageous for most couples. As a result, these services are only available in a few locations across the country. And clearly, their benefits are only affordable to a small number of couples.
Along with these techniques, the adoption of children is also one of the prime methods. But sometimes, adoption is not accepted by families due to various social, emotional, and religious factors. The ultimate goal of all of these couples is to have children. India has many orphaned and impoverished children who will most likely not survive to adulthood unless they are cared for. Our laws allow for legal adoption, and it is still one of the best choices for couples seeking parenthood.
Frequently Asked Questions on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
1. What is Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)? How does it work?
Couples can treat infertility with Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Learn Biology Concepts - Topics and Definitions. The treatment deals with both eggs and sperm. It accomplishes this by taking off eggs from the ovaries. Then these eggs are combined with sperm to form an embryo. This embryo is then implanted back into the female parents' body. It is regarded as one of the most effective types of ART; this procedure is known as In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF).
The ART procedures sometimes use donors' eggs and sperm or previously frozen embryos. It may also include the use of a gestational or surrogate carrier. A surrogate is a woman who becomes pregnant using one of the couple's partners' sperm. A gestational carrier conceives with one partner's egg and the other's sperm.
2. How can Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) help remove gender inequality?
Infertility treatment can be a great support in reducing gender inequality. As per scientifically proven records, both men and women can be infertile. But still, women are frequently perceived to be infertile, even if they are or are not. Infertility has contributed significantly to infertile couples, particularly women, who frequently face abuse, divorce pressure, lack of acceptance, extreme trauma, depression, anxiety, and low confidence.
In such cases, education and awareness-raising initiatives are critical in understanding the prevalence and factors of fertility and infertility. Here Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) has acted as a helping hand for couples who want to have their children. This scientifically advanced technology helps couples in experiencing their parenthood.
3. What is the primary distinction between ICSI and IVF technology?
There are numerous distinctions between Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection and In Vitro Fertilisation. The key difference between these two is that ICSI needs a single sperm cell to fertilize an egg, whereas IVF may need thousands of sperm cells to fertilize an egg. The main reason behind the use of thousands of sperm cells in IVF technology is that the process undergoes an important cellular reaction that helps produce an embryo, which is then transmitted to the female's uterus for a successful pregnancy.