Area of Specialization in Engineering

Engineering is a diverse field with numerous specialisations. From career perspective, specialisation is essential because it opens varied job opportunities. There are various specialised branches in engineering that helps increase the chances of employment in the respective fields. It provides optimum job opportunities compared to other fields. Specialised branches of engineering have been classified to give the insights so as to facilitate the students in the selection of the branches that acclimatise to their interests. It is the discretion of the students to choose the branch out of the list given below that conjugate to their adaptabilities. The following specialised branches have their respective utilities in technological advancements.

Aeronautical / Astronautical Engineering: Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns aircraft, spacecraft, and related topics. Originally called aeronautical engineering and dealing solely with aircraft, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has replaced the former in most usage. In analogy with "aeronautical engineering", the branch is sometimes referred to as astronautical engineering, although this term usually only concerns craft which operate in outer space.

Agricultural Engineering: Agricultural engineering incorporates many science disciplines and technology practices to the efficient production and processing of food, feed, fiber and fuels. It involves disciplines like mechanical engineering (agricultural machinery and automated machine systems), soil science (crop nutrient and fertilization, etc.), environmental sciences (drainage and irrigation), plant biology (seeding and plant growth management), animal science (farm animals and housing) and much more.

Automobile/ Automotive Engineering: Automotive engineering is a branch of Mechanical Engineering which incorporates elements of mechanical, electrical, electronics, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. Automobile engineers design, test, develop and manufacture automotive products such as heavy and light vehicles.

Biochemical Engineering: Biochemical engineering is a branch of chemical engineering that mainly deals with the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules. Biochemical engineering is often taught as a supplementary option to chemical engineering. Its applications are used in the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and water treatment industries.

Biomedical Engineering: Biomedical engineering (BME) is the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving expertise of engineering with the medical expertise of physicians to help improve patient healthcare. It covers an array of fields: bioinformatics, medical imaging, image processing, physiological signal processing, biomechanics, biomaterials and bioengineering, systems analysis, 3-D modeling, etc. This technology is used in diagnostic devices and imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, and pharmaceutical drugs.

Building Engineering: Building engineering, commonly known as architectural engineering, is an emerging engineering discipline that concerns with the planning, design, construction, operation, renovation, and maintenance of buildings, as well as with their impacts on the surrounding environment. As building construction projects are increasingly large and complex, the discipline requires pertinent knowledge integrated from traditional well-established.

Ceramic Engineering: Ceramic engineering is the science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials. This is done either by the action of heat, or at lower temperatures using precipitation reactions from high purity chemical solutions. The term includes the purification of raw materials, the study and production of the chemical compounds concerned, their formation into components and the study of their structure, composition and properties.

Chemical Engineering: Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms. Chemical engineering largely involves barfing and reproducing. The development of the large-scale processes characteristic of industrialized economies is a feat of chemical engineering, not chemistry.

Civil Engineering: Civil engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. Now a day civil engineering deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation, the natural environment, sewer, flood control, transportation and traffic. Civil Engineering for building structures and foundations include mechanical engineering for Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning system (HVAC), and for mechanical service systems; Physics for building science, lighting and acoustics.

Computer Engineering: Computer engineering (also called electronic and computer engineering) is a discipline that combines elements of both electrical engineering and computer science. Computer engineers are involved in many aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. Usual tasks involving computer engineers include writing software and firmware for embedded microcontrollers, designing VLSI chips, designing analog sensors, designing mixed signal circuit boards, and designing operating systems.

Construction Engineering: Construction engineering is concerned with the planning, management and construction of structures like highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior.

Control Engineering: Control engineering is the engineering discipline that focuses on mathematical modeling of systems of a diverse nature, analyzing their dynamic behavior, and using control theory to create a controller that will cause the systems to behave in a desired manner.

Electrical Engineering: Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronics engineering) is an engineering discipline that deals with the study and/or application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field now covers a range of sub-studies including those that deals with power, electronics, optoelectronics, digital electronics, analog electronics, computer science, control systems, photonics, signal processing and telecommunications.

Electronic Engineering: Electronic engineering is a professional discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. The term now also covers a large part of electrical engineering degree courses as studied at most universities.

Energy Engineering: It deals with energy efficiency, energy services, facility management, plant engineering, environmental compliance and alternative energy technologies. It combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry and Math with economic and environmental engineering. The chief job of energy engineers is to discover the most efficient and sustainable ways to operate buildings and manufacturing processes.

Engineering physics deals with the combined disciplines of Physics, Engineering and Mathematics to develop an understanding of the interrelationships of these three disciplines. Fundamental Physics is combined with problem solving and engineering skills.

Environmental Engineering: Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. It involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues.

Geomatic Engineering: It is a rapidly developing discipline that focuses on spatial information. It also involves aspects of Computer Engineering and Civil Engineering. The location is the primary factor used to integrate a very wide range of data for viewing and analysis. Geomatics engineers manage local, regional, national and global spatial data infrastructures.

Industrial Engineering: Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, knowledge, equipment, energy, material and process. It draws upon the principles and methods of engineering analysis and synthesis, as well as mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis.

Information Technology: Information technology (IT) is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. In short, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information.

Instrumentation Engineering: Instrumentation is defined as "the art and science of measurement and control". Instrumentation can be used to refer to the field in which instrument technicians and engineers work, or it can refer to the available methods of measurement and control and the instruments which facilitate this.

Marine Engineering: Marine Engineers are the members of a ship’s crew that operate and maintain the propulsion and other systems onboard the vessel. They deal with bulk fuel transfers, and require training in firefighting and first aid, as well as in dealing with the ship's boats and other nautical tasks- especially with cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers.

Material Engineering: Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering. With significant media attention to nano-science and nanotechnology in the recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities.

Mechanical Engineering: Mechanical engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It requires a solid understanding of key concepts including mechanics, kinematics, thermodynamics and energy.

Mechatronic Engineering: Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering ("mecha" for mechanisms, i.e., machines that 'move'), electronic engineering ("tronics" for electronics), and software engineering. The purpose of this interdisciplinary engineering field is the study of automata from an engineering perspective and serves the purposes of controlling advanced hybrid systems.

Microelectronic Engineering is the field of technology connected with the design and fabrication of electronic devices/systems or subsystems using extremely tiny components- integrated circuits. These are very tiny electronic circuits carrying out intended functions built on semiconducting substrate.

Mining Engineering: Mining Engineering is involved in finding the source of valuable mineral deposits located beneath the earth’s surface or water and is involved in removing them in the most economical way, separating as much as possible of the worthless materials from the valuable. Whole process involves planning, designing, safety operation, excavation of minerals and their transportation, maintenance of mines, air circulation and removal of toxic gases from the mines.

Nanotechnology is science, engineering and technology conducted at the nanoscale which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of very small things and can be used across all the other science areas like Physics, Chemistry, Biology and engineering.

Nuclear Engineering: Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants and/or nuclear weapons. The field can also include the study of nuclear fusion, medical applications of radiation, nuclear safety, heat transport, nuclear fuels technology, nuclear proliferation, and the effect of radioactive waste or radioactivity in the environment.

Ocean Engineering: Ocean engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the design, analysis and operation planning of systems that operate in an oceanic environment. Examples of systems range from oil platforms to submarines, from breakwaters to sailboats. Common to all are the conditions of the ocean including waves, seawater, and hydrostatic pressure.

Petroleum Engineering: Petroleum engineering is the principles of geology, physics and engineering sciences for the recovery development and processing of petroleum. Exploration work involves locating oil and gas sources. Petroleum engineers work in oil exploration on the high seas, forests, deserts, plains and mountains.

Printing and Media Engineering: is the study of print technology and media technology which covers the whole area of applied communications engineering from text and image processing, print preparation, the printing process and the finishing. Media technology focuses on the new electronic media.

Software Engineering: Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. It encompasses knowledge, tools, and methods for defining software requirements, and performing software design, software construction, software testing, and software maintenance tasks. It also draws on knowledge from fields such as computer engineering, computer science, management, mathematics, project management, quality management, software ergonomics, and systems engineering.

Systems Engineering: Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach, which is meant for enabling the realization and deployment of successful systems. It can be viewed as the application of engineering techniques to the engineering of systems, as well as the application of a systems approach to engineering efforts. It integrates other disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation and disposal.

Telecommunication Engineering: Telecommunications engineering / telecom engineering is an engineering discipline that brings together electrical engineering with computer science to enhance telecommunication systems. The work ranges from basic circuit design to strategic mass developments. A telecommunication engineer is responsible for designing and overseeing the installation of telecommunications equipment and facilities. They are responsible for providing the method for customers to have telephone and high-speed data services. Their work directly impacts assigning appropriate accounting codes for taxes and maintenance purposes, budgeting and overseeing projects.

Textile Engineering: Textile engineering/ textile technology is the study of various principles form engineering and scientific methodologies. It is based on the conversion of three types of fiber into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes. The working mechanics of this industry involve design, manufacture, distribution, and sales of clothing and apparels. Textile engineering is an innovative field as it is a scientific realm. It involves the creative research, study, and exploration of new techniques for production and improvisation.

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