The increasingly complicated lifestyles are giving birth to a variety of ailments, which have made it impossible for General Physicians with an MBBS degree to handle and prescribe for all ailments. It is here that specialization in a particular branch of medicine becomes a necessity.

The major Specializations include:
1 General Medicine 6 Ophthalmology
2 General Surgery 7 Orthopaedics
3 Paediatrics 8 ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat)
4 Obstetrics & Gynaecology 9 Psychiatry
5 Dermatology 10 Anaesthesiology

There are also 'Super Specializations' which require a further 3-5 years of study in areas such as:
1 Plastic Surgery 5 Paediatric Surgery
2 Neurosurgery 6 Gastroenterology
3 Cardio-thoracic surgery 7 Endocrinology
4 Conito-urinary surgery 8 Clinical Haematology


Some of the common areas of specialization in Medicine and Surgery are

1. Anaesthetist or Anaesthesiologists: Administers anaesthetics’ to a patient undergoing surgical operation according to the nature of operation. It is he/she who makes the surgical procedure as painless as possible. His/her duties involve examining the patient to determine his capacity to withstand shock of operation and anaesthesia. He/she has a huge responsibility and has to be present throughout the operation.
Bacteriologist: Also called Microbiologist, Bacteriologist conducts research and laboratory experiments on occurrence, growth, development, control and utilization of bacteria and other micro-organisms.
3. Cardiologist: Also called as heart specialist, Cardiologist treats diseases related to heart and circulatory system.
4. Chiropodist: Also called pedicurist, Chiropodist treats foot diseases and abnormalities. He/she treats corns, blisters etc using surgical instruments.
5. Craniologist: Engages in study of skulls.
6. Dermatologist: Specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin problems.
7. ENT Specialist: Treats disorders of ear, nose and throat.
8. Eugenics: Study of improvement of human race by applying laws of heredity. It is related to future generations.
9. Gastroenterologist: Treats diseases related to liver, pancreas, stomach, intestine, bowels and gall bladder.
10. General Practitioner or Physician: He/she diagnoses and treats the ailments of all and sundry covering the ailments of the entire human body. MBBS holders practice as physicians.
11. General Surgeon: The one, who specializes in surgery for all organs of the body. He/she can further specialize in specific areas. Duties involve examining the patient to determine the extent and nature of injury, treatment through operation and giving post operative care. Surgery is of various types such as Orthopaedic, Plastic, Neuro etc.
12. Gynaecologist-Obstetrician: Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of human female reproductive system. They care for pregnant women from conception to delivery.
13. Haematology: Study of blood.
14. Hepatology: It is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
15. Herpetology: It is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles.
16. Immunology: Science which deals with the study of resistance of organisms against infection.
17. Kalology: Study of human beauty.
18. Nephrology: Study of kidneys.
19. Neurologist: Diagnoses and treats diseases related to brain and nervous system. They also specialize in Neuro-surgery.
20. Nutritionist: Gives instructions regarding food values and utilization of foods in human body to keep it healthy and control diseases. He prescribes diet for various diseases.
21. Obstetrics: Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy.
22. Ophthalmologist or Eye Specialist: Treats diseases and disorders of eyes.
23. Orthopaedist: Deals with diseases connected to skeletal system. Orthopaedic is that branch of medicine that deals with the correction of deformities and prevention of disorders in joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, all bones and bony tissue.
24. Paediatrician: Treats newborn babies and children.
25. Pathologist: Investigate the cause of various diseases and the possibilities for their prevention. His/her duties involve conducting chemical, microscopic and bacteriological test in labs and examining blood, tissues, urine etc. to find out the cause for disease.
26. Physiologist: Studies normal functioning of different organs and tissues of human body and investigates effects of physical environments such as variations in altitude, speed, temperature etc on its vital functions.
27. Psychiatrist: Diagnoses and treats mental disorders. Psychiatry has two major branches viz., psychotherapy-the application of psychological techniques to the treatment of mental illnesses and the second branch is psychiatry, where medical therapies are used. After diagnosing physical and behavioural symptoms, drugs and other means may be used for treatment.
28. Radiologist: Diagnosis diseases and disorders by studying X-ray pictures of affected parts and gives treatment such as therapeutic radiation to affected parts of the body.
29. Seismology: The study of earthquakes and the movement of waves through the earth.
30. Toxicology: The study of poisons and the effects of poisoning.
31. Tuberculosis Specialist: Treats ailments due to infection by tubercular disease.
32. Venereologist: Treats venereal or sexual diseases.
33. Zoology: The study of animals.


Doctors can find employment in

1. Government or private Hospitals.
2. Nursing homes/clinics/health departments.
3. Medical services of the Army, Navy and Air force under the Ministry of Defence.
4. Charitable institutions.
5. Medical colleges and training institutes as teachers.
6. Research institutes and medical colleges as researchers.
7. The industrial sector.
8. Private practice / self employment.

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