By Team Aakash Byju's

Class 12 Biology Notes: Loss of Biodiversity and Conservation

The loss of biodiversity in a region could lead to:

Reduction in plant production.

Low resistance to environmental problems like drought, global warming, etc.

Increased variability in certain ecosystem processes, including plant productivity, water use, pest and disease cycles.

The following two methods can be used to conserve biodiversity:

– In situ conservation – Ex-situ conservation

In situ conservation is the process of preserving and safeguarding the entire ecosystem in order to maintain biodiversity at all levels.

For example conservation of biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, etc.

 The three main in situ conservation techniques are genetic reserve, on-farm and home garden conservation.

Genetic reserve conservation involves the location, designation, management, and monitoring of genetic diversity in a particular, natural location.

On-farm conservation is important because it promotes local level decision making about the management of genetic resources.

Ex-situ conservation refers to the method of rescuing threatened and endangered species by acting quickly.

 Aquariums, botanical gardens, DNA banks, zoos are examples of ex-situ conservation.

Biotechnology has emerged as an important link between conservation and sustainable utilization of genetic diversity of plant conservation programmes.